Leroy Hood, MD, PhD

SVP and Chief Science Officer, Providence St. Joseph Health; Chief Strategy Officer, Co-founder and Professor, ISB

Lee Hood

Dr. Leroy Hood’s outstanding contributions have had a resounding effect on the advancement of science since the 1960s. Throughout his career, he has adhered to the advice of his mentor, Dr. William J. Dreyer: “If you want to practice biology, do it on the leading edge, and if you want to be on the leading edge, invent new tools for deciphering biological information.”

Hood was involved in the development of six instruments critical for contemporary biology — namely, automated DNA sequencers, DNA synthesizers, protein sequencers, peptide synthesizers, the ink jet printer for constructing DNA arrays and large-scale synthesis of DNA, and the nanostring instrument for the single molecule analysis of RNA (and later DNA). These instruments opened the door to high-throughput biological data and the era of big data in biology and medicine. He helped pioneer the human genome program — making it possible with the automated DNA sequencer. Under Hood’s direction, the Human Genome Center sequenced portions of human chromosomes 14 and 15.

In 1992, Hood created the first cross-disciplinary biology department, Molecular Biotechnology, at the University of Washington. In 2000, he left the UW to co-found Institute for Systems Biology (ISB), the first committed to a systems approach to biology and disease. He has pioneered systems medicine and scientific wellness in the years since ISB’s founding and has argued for health care that is predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4). In 2016, he oversaw ISB’s affiliation with Providence St. Joseph Health (PSJH) with the goal of bringing personalized medicine to every patient.

Hood has made many seminal discoveries in the fields of immunology, neurobiology, cancer biology and biotechnology, and, most recently, has been a leader in the development of systems biology and its applications to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as pioneering technologies and strategies that bring systems biology to personalized medicine.

In addition to his groundbreaking research, Hood has published 750 papers, received 36 patents, 17 honorary degrees and more than 100 awards and honors. He is one of 20 individuals elected to all three National Academies — the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. Hood has founded or co-founded 15 different biotechnology companies including Amgen, Applied Biosystems, Rosetta, Darwin, Integrated Diagnostics, Indi Molecular and Arivale. Hood has also had a life-long interest in K-12 science education and ISB has been a leader in this area.


2017      NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society
     The UCD Ulysses Medal
2015      The Johns Hopkins University Alumni Association Global Achievement Award
2014      Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology
2014      Geoffrey Beene Builders of Science award presented by Research!America
2013      Alvin J. Thompson Award for Leadership in K-12 education and science (awarded by NW Association for Biomedical Research)
2013      Future in Review, CEO of the Year
2012      Elected as a Fellow to the American Association for Cancer Research
2011      National Medal of Science
2011      Fritz and Dolores Russ Prize, National Academy of Engineering
2007      Elected Member, National Academy of Engineering
2007      Elected Member, Inventors Hall of Fame for the automated DNA sequencer
2006      Heinz Award for pioneering work in systems biology
2005      AACR-Irving Weinstein Foundation Distinguished Lecturer Award
2003      Elected Member, Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science
2003      Lemelson-MIT Prize for Innovation and Invention
2002      Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology
2000      Elected Member, American Philosophical Society
1993      Scientist of the Year, Research and Development Magazine
1987      Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award
1982      Elected Member, National Academy of Science
1982      Elected Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Chief Strategy Officer and Professor, Institute for Systems Biology
Chief Science Officer and Senior Vice President, Providence St. Joseph Health
President, Co-founder and Professor, Institute for Systems Biology
Chairman and Founder of the Department of Molecular Biotechnology at University of Washington
Caltech Faculty Member — Chair of Biology for 10 years
Senior Investigator, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
1967 PhD
1964 MD
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
1960 BS


Hood, L. 2000. “The Human Genome Project–Launch Pad for Human Genetic Engineering.” In Engineering the Human Germline (1st Edition), edited by J. Campbell, 17–24. New York: Oxford University Press. Cite
Ideker, T., V. Thorsson, A. F. Siegel, and L. E. Hood. 2000. “Testing for Differentially-Expressed Genes by Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Microarray Data.” J Comput Biol 7 (6): 805–17. Cite
Chaudhary, P. M., M. T. Eby, A. Jasmin, A. Kumar, L. Liu, and L. Hood. 2000. “Activation of the NF-KappaB Pathway by Caspase 8 and Its Homologs.” Oncogene 19 (39): 4451–60. Cite
Deng, Y., A. Madan, A. B. Banta, C. Friedman, B. J. Trask, L. Hood, and L. Li. 2000. “Characterization, Chromosomal Localization, and the Complete 30-Kb DNA Sequence of the Human Jagged2 (JAG2) Gene.” Genomics 63 (1): 133–38. Cite
Nelson, P. S., N. Clegg, B. Eroglu, V. Hawkins, R. Bumgarner, T. Smith, and L. Hood. 2000. “The Prostate Expression Database (PEDB): Status and Enhancements in 2000.” Nucleic Acids Res 28 (1): 212–13. Cite
Lin, B., J. T. White, C. Ferguson, R. Bumgarner, C. Friedman, B. Trask, W. Ellis, P. Lange, L. Hood, and P. S. Nelson. 2000. “PART-1: A Novel Human Prostate-Specific, Androgen-Regulated Gene That Maps to Chromosome 5q12.” Cancer Res 60 (4): 858–63. Cite
Goode, E. L., J. L. Stanford, L. Chakrabarti, M. Gibbs, S. Kolb, R. A. McIndoe, V. A. Buckley, et al. 2000. “Linkage Analysis of 150 High-Risk Prostate Cancer Families at 1q24-25.” Genet Epidemiol 18 (3): 251–75. Cite
Aebersold, R., L. E. Hood, and J. Watts. 2000. “Equipping Scientists for the New Biology.” Nat Biotechnol 18 (4): 359. Cite
Brewster, J. L., S. L. Martin, J. Toms, D. Goss, K. Wang, K. Zachrone, A. Davis, G. Carlson, L. Hood, and J. D. Coffin. 2000. “Deletion of Dad1 in Mice Induces an Apoptosis-Associated Embryonic Death.” Genesis 26 (4): 271–78. Cite
Nelson, P. S., D. Han, Y. Rochon, G. L. Corthals, B. Lin, A. Monson, V. Nguyen, et al. 2000. “Comprehensive Analyses of Prostate Gene Expression: Convergence of Expressed Sequence Tag Databases, Transcript Profiling and Proteomics.” Electrophoresis 21 (9): 1823–31. Cite
Baliga, N. S., Y. A. Goo, W. V. Ng, L. Hood, C. J. Daniels, and S. DasSarma. 2000. “Is Gene Expression in Halobacterium NRC-1 Regulated by Multiple TBP and TFB Transcription Factors?” Mol Microbiol 36 (5): 1184–85. Cite
Gibbs, M., J. L. Stanford, G. P. Jarvik, M. Janer, M. Badzioch, M. A. Peters, E. L. Goode, et al. 2000. “A Genomic Scan of Families with Prostate Cancer Identifies Multiple Regions of Interest.” Am J Hum Genet 67 (1): 100–109. Cite
Allen, E. E., and L. Hood. 2000. “Biotechnology, Inquiry, and Public Education.” Trends Biotechnol 18 (8): 329–30. Cite
Cameron, R. A., G. Mahairas, J. P. Rast, P. Martinez, T. R. Biondi, S. Swartzell, J. C. Wallace, et al. 2000. “A Sea Urchin Genome Project: Sequence Scan, Virtual Map, and Additional Resources.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 (17): 9514–18. Cite
Rowen, L., G. K. Wong, R. P. Lane, and L. Hood. 2000. “Intellectual Property. Publication Rights in the Era of Open Data Release Policies.” Science 289 (5486): 1881. Cite
Siegel, A. F., G. van den Engh, L. Hood, B. Trask, and J. Roach. 2000. “Modeling the Feasibility of Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Using a Pairwise End Strategy.” Genomics 68 (3): 237–46. Cite
Ng, W. V., S. P. Kennedy, G. G. Mahairas, B. Berquist, M. Pan, H. D. Shukla, S. R. Lasky, et al. 2000. “Genome Sequence of Halobacterium Species NRC-1.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 (22): 12176–81. Cite
Anderson, J. P., A. G. Rodrigo, G. H. Learn, A. Madan, C. Delahunty, M. Coon, M. Girard, S. Osmanov, L. Hood, and J. I. Mullins. 2000. “Testing the Hypothesis of a Recombinant Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype E.” J Virol 74 (22): 10752–65. Cite
Rampazzo, A., F. Pivotto, G. Occhi, N. Tiso, S. Bortoluzzi, L. Rowen, L. Hood, A. Nava, and G. A. Danieli. 2000. “Characterization of C14orf4, a Novel Intronless Human Gene Containing a Polyglutamine Repeat, Mapped to the ARVD1 Critical Region.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278 (3): 766–74. Cite
Hood, L. 2001. “Melanoma Techniques and Protocols: Molecular Diagnosis, Treatment, and Monitoring.” In Methods in Molecular Medicine, 61:Forward by Hood, L. Totowa, NJ: Humana Pr Inc. Cite
Ideker, T., T. Galitski, and L. Hood. 2001. “A New Approach to Decoding Life: Systems Biology.” Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2: 343–72. Cite
Baliga, N. S., S. P. Kennedy, W. V. Ng, L. Hood, and S. DasSarma. 2001. “Genomic and Genetic Dissection of an Archaeal Regulon.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (5): 2521-5. Cite
DasSarma, S., S. P. Kennedy, B. Berquist, W. Victor Ng, N. S. Baliga, J. L. Spudich, M. P. Krebs, J. A. Eisen, C. H. Johnson, and L. Hood. 2001. “Genomic Perspective on the Photobiology of Halobacterium Species NRC-1, a Phototrophic, Phototactic, and UV-Tolerant Haloarchaeon.” Photosynth Res 70 (1): 3–17. Cite
Hood, L. 2001. “Deciphering Heredity.” In The Alfred Deakin Lectures: Ideas for the Future of a Civil Society, 164–76. Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Cite
Peters, M. A., G. P. Jarvik, M. Janer, L. Chakrabarti, S. Kolb, E. L. Goode, M. Gibbs, et al. 2001. “Genetic Linkage Analysis of Prostate Cancer Families to Xq27-28.” Hum Hered 51 (1–2): 107–13. Cite
Park, I. K., C. A. Klug, K. Li, L. Jerabek, L. Li, M. Nanamori, R. R. Neubig, L. Hood, I. L. Weissman, and M. F. Clarke. 2001. “Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Regulator of G-Protein Signaling from Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells.” J Biol Chem 276 (2): 915–23. Cite
Wang, K., L. Gan, T. Kunisada, I. Lee, H. Yamagishi, and L. Hood. 2001. “Characterization of the Japanese Pufferfish (Takifugu Rubripes) T-Cell Receptor Alpha Locus Reveals a Unique Genomic Organization.” Immunogenetics 53 (1): 31–42. Cite
Chen, F., L. Rowen, L. Hood, and E. V. Rothenberg. 2001. “Differential Transcriptional Regulation of Individual TCR V Beta Segments before Gene Rearrangement.” J Immunol 166 (3): 1771–80. Cite
Lin, B., J. T. White, C. Ferguson, S. Wang, R. Vessella, R. Bumgarner, L. D. True, L. Hood, and P. S. Nelson. 2001. “Prostate Short-Chain Dehydrogenase Reductase 1 (PSDR1): A New Member of the Short-Chain Steroid Dehydrogenase/Reductase Family Highly Expressed in Normal and Neoplastic Prostate Epithelium.” Cancer Res 61 (4): 1611–18. Cite
McPherson, J. D., M. Marra, L. Hillier, R. H. Waterston, A. Chinwalla, J. Wallis, M. Sekhon, et al. 2001. “A Physical Map of the Human Genome.” Nature 409 (6822): 934–41. Cite
Bruls, T., G. Gyapay, J. L. Petit, F. Artiguenave, V. Vico, S. Qin, A. M. Tin-Wollam, et al. 2001. “A Physical Map of Human Chromosome 14.” Nature 409 (6822): 947–48. Cite
Lander, E. S., L. M. Linton, B. Birren, C. Nusbaum, M. C. Zody, J. Baldwin, K. Devon, et al. 2001. “Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome.” Nature 409 (6822): 860–921. Cite
Peck, R. F., C. Echavarri-Erasun, E. A. Johnson, W. V. Ng, S. P. Kennedy, L. Hood, S. DasSarma, and M. P. Krebs. 2001. “Brp and Blh Are Required for Synthesis of the Retinal Cofactor of Bacteriorhodopsin in Halobacterium Salinarum.” J Biol Chem 276 (8): 5739–44. Cite
Aderem, A., and L. Hood. 2001. “Immunology in the Post-Genomic Era.” Nat Immunol 2 (5): 373–75. Cite
Meyer, A. L., J. Benson, F. Song, N. Javed, I. E. Gienapp, J. Goverman, T. A. Brabb, L. Hood, and C. C. Whitacre. 2001. “Rapid Depletion of Peripheral Antigen-Specific T Cells in TCR-Transgenic Mice after Oral Administration of Myelin Basic Protein.” J Immunol 166 (9): 5773–81. Cite
Ideker, T., V. Thorsson, J. Ranish, R. Christmas, J. Buhler, J. K. Eng, R. Bumgarner, D. R. Goodlett, R. Aebersold, and L. Hood. 2001. “Integrated Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of a Systematically Perturbed Metabolic Network.” Science 292 (5518): 929–34. Cite
Lane, R. P., T. Cutforth, J. Young, M. Athanasiou, C. Friedman, L. Rowen, G. Evans, R. Axel, L. Hood, and B. J. Trask. 2001. “Genomic Analysis of Orthologous Mouse and Human Olfactory Receptor Loci.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (13): 7390–95. Cite
Anderson, J. P., A. G. Rodrigo, G. H. Learn, Y. Wang, H. Weinstock, M. L. Kalish, K. E. Robbins, L. Hood, and J. I. Mullins. 2001. “Substitution Model of Sequence Evolution for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype B Gp120 Gene over the C2-V5 Region.” J Mol Evol 53 (1): 55–62. Cite
Terskikh, A. V., M. C. Easterday, L. Li, L. Hood, H. I. Kornblum, D. H. Geschwind, and I. L. Weissman. 2001. “From Hematopoiesis to Neuropoiesis: Evidence of Overlapping Genetic Programs.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (14): 7934–39. Cite
Hood, L. 2001. “Computing Life: The Challenge Ahead.” IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 20 (4): 20. Cite
Glusman, G., L. Rowen, I. Lee, C. Boysen, J. Roach, A. Smit, K. Wang, B. F. Koop, and L. Hood. 2001. “Comparative Genomics of the Human and Mouse T Cell Receptor Loci.” Immunity 15 (3): 337–49. Cite
Goode, E. L., J. L. Stanford, M. A. Peters, M. Janer, M. Gibbs, S. Kolb, M. D. Badzioch, L. Hood, E. A. Ostrander, and G. P. Jarvik. 2001. “Clinical Characteristics of Prostate Cancer in an Analysis of Linkage to Four Putative Susceptibility Loci.” Clin Cancer Res 7 (9): 2739–49. Cite
Kennedy, S. P., W. V. Ng, S. L. Salzberg, L. Hood, and S. DasSarma. 2001. “Understanding the Adaptation of Halobacterium Species NRC-1 to Its Extreme Environment through Computational Analysis of Its Genome Sequence.” Genome Res 11 (10): 1641–50. Cite
Moore, R. C., P. Mastrangelo, E. Bouzamondo, C. Heinrich, G. Legname, S. B. Prusiner, L. Hood, D. Westaway, S. J. Dearmond, and P. Tremblay. 2001. “Doppel-Induced Cerebellar Degeneration in Transgenic Mice.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (26): 15288–93. Cite
Futter, N. Wade, H. Varmus, E. Green, C. Venter, L. Hood, R. Bazell, et al. 2002. “After the Genome: Where Should We Go?” In The Genomic Revolution: Unveiling the Unity of Life, 64–73. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C. with the American Museum of Natural History. Cite
Foltz, G., A. Madan, and L. Hood. 2002. Cancer Proteomics: Methodologies for the Selection of Immunotherapy Targets. Principles and Practice of Biologic Therapy of Cancer Updates, Third Edition. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, A Wolters Kluwer Company. Cite
Lane, R. P., J. C. Roach, I. Lee, C. Boysen, A. Smit, B. J. Trask, and L. Hood. 2002. “Genomic Analysis of the Olfactory Receptor Region of the Mouse and Human T-Cell Receptor Alpha/Delta Loci.” Genome Research 12 (1): 81–87. Cite
Lane, R. P., T. Cutforth, R. Axel, L. Hood, and B. J. Trask. 2002. “Sequence Analysis of Mouse Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Clusters Reveals Common Promoter Motifs and a History of Recent Expansion.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99 (1): 291–96. Cite
Park, I. K., Y. He, F. Lin, O. D. Laerum, Q. Tian, R. Bumgarner, C. A. Klug, et al. 2002. “Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Adult Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells.” Blood 99 (2): 488–98. Cite
Liu, A. Y., P. S. Nelson, G. van den Engh, and L. Hood. 2002. “Human Prostate Epithelial Cell-Type CDNA Libraries and Prostate Expression Patterns.” Prostate 50 (2): 92–103. Cite