TY - JOUR
TI - A Testable Theory for the Emergence of the Classical World
AU - Kauffman, Stuart
AU - Patra, Sudip
T2 - Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)
AB - The transition from the quantum to the classical world is not yet understood. Here, we take a new approach. Central to this is the understanding that measurement and actualization cannot occur except on some specific basis. However, we have no established theory for the emergence of a specific basis. Our framework entails the following: (i) Sets of N entangled quantum variables can mutually actualize one another. (ii) Such actualization must occur in only one of the 2N possible bases. (iii) Mutual actualization progressively breaks symmetry among the 2N bases. (iv) An emerging "amplitude" for any basis can be amplified by further measurements in that basis, and it can decay between measurements. (v) The emergence of any basis is driven by mutual measurements among the N variables and decoherence with the environment. Quantum Zeno interactions among the N variables mediates the mutual measurements. (vi) As the number of variables, N, increases, the number of Quantum Zeno mediated measurements among the N variables increases. We note that decoherence alone does not yield a specific basis. (vii) Quantum ordered, quantum critical, and quantum chaotic peptides that decohere at nanosecond versus femtosecond time scales can be used as test objects. (viii) By varying the number of amino acids, N, and the use of quantum ordered, critical, or chaotic peptides, the ratio of decoherence to Quantum Zeno effects can be tuned. This enables new means to probe the emergence of one among a set of initially entangled bases via weak measurements after preparing the system in a mixed basis condition. (ix) Use of the three stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and the five stable isotopes of sulfur allows any ten atoms in the test protein to be discriminably labeled and the basis of emergence for those labeled atoms can be detected by weak measurements. We present an initial mathematical framework for this theory, and we propose experiments.
DA - 2022///
PY - 2022
DO - 10.3390/e24060844
DP - PubMed
VL - 24
IS - 6
SP - 844
J2 - Entropy (Basel)
LA - eng
SN - 1099-4300
KW - Quantum Zeno effects
KW - basis symmetry breaking
KW - chaotic peptides
KW - collectively actualizing sets
KW - critical
KW - decoherence
KW - entangled bases
KW - isotope labeling
KW - quantum ordered
KW - quantum to classical transition
KW - tunable ratio of decoherence to Quantum Zeno effect
KW - weak measurements
ER -