TY - JOUR
TI - Quantum Gravity If Non-Locality Is Fundamental
AU - Kauffman, Stuart A.
T2 - Entropy (Basel, Switzerland)
AB - I take non-locality to be the Michelson-Morley experiment of the early 21st century, assume its universal validity, and try to derive its consequences. Spacetime, with its locality, cannot be fundamental, but must somehow be emergent from entangled coherent quantum variables and their behaviors. There are, then, two immediate consequences: (i). if we start with non-locality, we need not explain non-locality. We must instead explain an emergence of locality and spacetime. (ii). There can be no emergence of spacetime without matter. These propositions flatly contradict General Relativity, which is foundationally local, can be formulated without matter, and in which there is no "emergence" of spacetime. If these be true, then quantum gravity cannot be a minor alteration of General Relativity but must demand its deep reformulation. This will almost inevitably lead to: matter not only curves spacetime, but "creates" spacetime. We will see independent grounds for the assertion that matter both curves and creates spacetime that may invite a new union of quantum gravity and General Relativity. This quantum creation of spacetime consists of: (i) fully non-local entangled coherent quantum variables. (ii) The onset of locality via decoherence. (iii) A metric in Hilbert space among entangled quantum variables by the sub-additive von Neumann entropy between pairs of variables. (iv) Mapping from metric distances in Hilbert space to metric distances in classical spacetime by episodic actualization events. (v) Discrete spacetime is the relations among these discrete actualization events. (vi) "Now" is the shared moment of actualization of one among the entangled variables when the amplitudes of the remaining entangled variables change instantaneously. (vii) The discrete, successive, episodic, irreversible actualization events constitute a quantum arrow of time. (viii) The arrow of time history of these events is recorded in the very structure of the spacetime constructed. (ix) Actual Time is a succession of two or more actual events. The theory inevitably yields a UV cutoff of a new type. The cutoff is a phase transition between continuous spacetime before the transition and discontinuous spacetime beyond the phase transition. This quantum creation of spacetime modifies General Relativity and may account for Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and the possible elimination of the singularities of General Relativity. Relations to Causal Set Theory, faithful Lorentzian manifolds, and past and future light cones joined at "Actual Now" are discussed. Possible observational and experimental tests based on: (i). the existence of Sub- Planckian photons, (ii). knee and ankle discontinuities in the high-energy gamma ray spectrum, and (iii). possible experiments to detect a creation of spacetime in the Casimir system are discussed. A quantum actualization enhancement of repulsive Casimir effect would be anti-gravitational and of possible practical use. The ideas and concepts discussed here are not yet a theory, but at most the start of a framework that may be useful.
DA - 2022///
PY - 2022
DO - 10.3390/e24040554
DP - PubMed
VL - 24
IS - 4
SP - 554
J2 - Entropy (Basel)
LA - eng
SN - 1099-4300
KW - Casimir effect
KW - Causal Set Theory
KW - Dark Energy
KW - Dark Matter
KW - General Relativity
KW - UV cutoff
KW - a phase transition from continuous to discontinuous spacetime
KW - a quantum arrow of time
KW - a quantum creation of spacetime
KW - actualization
KW - decoherence
KW - faithful Lorentzian manifolds
KW - gamma ray spectrum discontinuities
KW - metric in Hilbert space
KW - non-locality
KW - now
KW - past and future light cones
KW - quantum gravity
KW - re-coherence
KW - record
KW - remember
KW - singularities
KW - tensor networks
KW - von Neumann entropy
KW - “res potentia and res extensa”
ER -